DISSOCIATED NEURONAL CULTURES

The high density of our HD-MEA chips can be exploited in different ways to gather as much information as never before from large networks of cultured neurons. Experimenters can discriminate the activity of spontaneous and chemically induced spatiotemporal patterns, follow the network response to stimuli and even study complex network topologies, just to make few examples.

Spontaneous activity

200 ms of spontaneous activity of hippocampal cell cultures (22 Days-In-Vitro) and showing sustained burst propagations over the whole network.

Low density culture

100 ms of spontaneous activity of hippocampal cell cultures (15 Days-In-Vitro) seeded a low cellular density in order to resolve cellular activity (~4000 neurons).

Electrical stimulation

Recording of electrically evoked response (100 ms) of a cultured hippocampal network (21 Days-In-Vitro.rat) using two (A,B) different on-chip stimulating electrodes. Responses even below 3 ms can be recorded without electrically induced artifacts.

Data provided courtesy of Dr. Alessandro Maccione and the team of Dr. Luca Berdondini, NetS3 Lab, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy.

3D culture

Spiking activity recorded from primary cortical neuronal culture at DIV 25 and with a 3D scaffolding.

Low density culture

Two different examples (A and B) of different pattern activities recorded from the same hippocampal culture (22 DIV) from a post-natal rat of 2 days.

Data provided courtesy of Mariateresa Tedesco, from Prof. Sergio Martinoia's lab, DIBRIS, University of Genova, Italy.

BRAIN TISSUES

Both field potentials and multiunit activities can be sensed with unprecedented spatiotemporal details on our HD-MEAs. Moreover the large field of view of our MEAs enables assays on large tissue portions, such as in rat cortico-hippocampal slices, to be carried out.

Cerebellar slice

Recording from mouse (21 days) cerebellar slice showing spontaneous activity in Purkinje cells.

Data provided courtesy of the team of Prof. Egidio D’Angelo (in particular: Dr. Lisa Mapelli, Dr. Teresa Soda, Dr. Francesca Locatelli) University of Pavia.

Epileptic-like events

Functional imaging of distinct inter-ictal (I-IC) events obtained by superimposing the activity recorded from a cortico-hippocampal slice by a 3Brain's high-resolution CMOS-MEA with the image of the slice itself taken by a microscope.

Data provided courtesy of Dr. Enrico Ferrea and team of Dr. Benfenati, NBT / Synaptic Neuroscience, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy (adapted from Ferrea et al. 2012).

Rat cortico-hippocampal

Recording of rat hippocampal slice (14 days) during spontaneous activity (A) and after perfusion with 4-Aminopyridine (B imediately after; C: 15 min after perfusion).

Data provided courtesy of Franco Ortiz, from Prof. Rafael Gutiérrez's lab, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Insituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico.

Mouse hippocampal

Recording of hippocampal activation from two different mice respectively at 21 (A) and 27 (B) post natal days under perfusion with 4-Amino-Pyridine.

Data provided courtesy of Dr. Alessandro Maccione and the team of Dr. Luca Berdondini, NetS3 Lab, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy.

ACUTE RETINA

Explanted retinas are an ideal biological preparation to be investigated with our HD-MEAs thanks to their large-scale sensing area (up to 5.12 x 5.12 mm2) that come together with temporal resolutions outperforming those of imaging techniques.

Dystrophic retina

Recording of spontaneous activity from the ganglion cell layer in the Cone Rod Homeobox knockout mouse retina, a model of photoreceptor dystrophy. Dystrophic retinas are characterized by pathological, strong spontaneous bursting and oscillations in the ganglion cell layer. In this example, bursts are generated in cell bodies and propagate along axons converging towards the optic disc.

Spontaneous waves

Spontaneous waves recorded from the ganglion cell layer in a P11 mouse retina. The activity becomes stronger in the presence of the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline (10 µM) and furosemide (100 µM), a blocker of the potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2.

Light stimulation

Light-elicited ganglion cell responses of a mouse retina (P113) showing the activity of retinal ON ganglion cells after onset of a full field light stimulus (2.8 cd*s/m2). Immediately after stimulus onset, ON transient ganglion cell types respond to the light followed by more ON sustained ganglion cell types. The optic disc is in the middle, the dorsal side at the bottom and the ventral side at the top.

Axonal responses

Retinal ganglion cell axonal responses to flickering (1Hz) checkerboard stimulus under dark mesopic conditions. The movie clearly shows propagating impulses along axonal bundles (P113 days mouse).

Data provided courtesy of Dr. Evelyne Sernagor and Dr. Gerrit Hilgen, The Institute of Neuroscience (ION), NewCastle upon Tyne, UK.

Salamander retina

Recording of light elicited activity of salamander retinal ganglion cells.

Data provided courtesy of Dr. Tim Gollisch and Dr. Vidhyasankar Krishnamoorthy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Göttingen, Germany.